Knowledge, risk factors and prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women at primary health care level in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria
Toxoplasmosis in pregnant woemn in Ibadan, Nigeria
Recent information on prevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is lacking despite awareness of its teratogenicity. This study determines the prevalence of anti-Toxoplama IgG and risk factors of Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women at primary health care level. In a cross-sectional study 377 pregnant women selected by two stage sampling from primary health care centres in Ibadan were interviewed using structured interviewer administered and pretested questionnaire. Information was collected on respondents socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about Toxoplasmosis and exposure to associated risk factors. Two milliliters of blood was collected from each woman and screened for anti-Toxoplasma IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunoassay. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi square and logistic regression at significant p-value = 0.05. Mean age of the respondents was 26.2±4.6years. Two hundred and fifteen 215(57.8%) were Christians, while 173 (49.4%) gestational age between 14 and 28weeks. There was no knowledge of toxoplasmosis and its transmission among respondents. Respondents reported habitual eating unwashed fruits and vegetables (150, 44.7%) and and undercooked meat (172, 46.9%) while 48(13.2%) had pet in their houses and 16(4.4%) had ever received blood transfusion. There was significant association between Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence and religion (p=0.015), eating unwashed vegetables and unwashed fruits (p=0.011), pet possession (0.037) and blood transfusion (p=0.014). Having ever received blood transfusion was 9 times more likely associated with Toxoplasma infection (OR = 8.76; CI: 1.14 – 67.129). Health education and screening for Toxoplasmosis among pregnant women is recommended to interrupt transmission of toxoplasmosis in the community.
Toxoplasma gondii, pregnant women, pet possession, unwashed fruits, undercooked meat
Abu-Madhi Marawan A., Jerzy M. Behnke, Haydee A. Dabritz (2010). Toxoplasma
gondii Seropositivity and Co-Infection with TORCH Pathogens in High-Risk Patients from Qatar.The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 82 (4) 626 - 633
Aganga A.O., Ortese A.A. 1984: A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in pet dogs
in Nigeria. Br. Vet. J. 140: 207‒209.
Aganga, AO. (1985). Toxoplasmosis in Chicken in Zaria, Nigeria. International Journal of
zoonosis. 11: 170-174.
Akinbami AA, Adewunmi AA, Rabiu KA, Wright KO, Dosunmu AO, Dada MO,
Adeyemo TA. (2010). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies amongst pregnant women at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Niger Postgrad Med J. 17(2):164-167
Alvarado-Esquive, C., Liesenfeld, O., Burciaga-López, B.D., Ramos-Nevárez, A., Estrada-Martínez, S., Cerrillo- Soto, S.M., Carrete-Ramírez, F.A., López-Centeno, M., and Ruiz-Martínez, M.M. (2012). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 12(7), 568-574.
Cunningham A.A., Buxton D. and Thomson K.M. (1992). An epidemic of toxoplasmosis in a captive colony of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J. Comp. Pathol., 107, 207–219.
Deji-Agboola A.M., Busari O.S., Osinupebi O.A., Amoo A.O.J. 2011: Seroprevalence of
Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of Federal Medical Center, Lagos, Nigeria. Int. J. Biol. Med. Res. 2: 1135‒1139.
Elmore SA, Jones JL, Conrad PA, Patton S, Lindsay DS, Dubey JP. (2010) Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention. Trends Parasitol. 26(4):190–196.
Henriquez SA, Brett R, Alexander J, Pratt J, Roberts CW (2009). Neuropsychiatric
disease and Toxoplasma gondii infection. Neuroimmunomodulation. 16(2):122-133
Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M, McQuillan G, Navin T, McAuley JB. (2001). Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: seroprevalence and risk factors. Am J Epidemiol. 154(4):357–365.
Kamani, J., Mani, A.U., Kumshe, H.A., Dogo, G.I., Yidawi, J.P., Dauda, P., Nnabuife, H.E., Peter, J., and Egwu, G.O. (2010). Serosurvey for Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 4(1): 015-018
Liu Q, Feng W, Shengyan G, Li Jiang H, Xianghong X. (2009) Toxoplasma
gondii infection in pregnant women in China. The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine. 103(2): 162 – 166
Muktar-Yola M, Ibrahim M, Belonwu R, Farouk Z, Mohammed A. (2005). The prevalence
and Perinatal Outcome of Obvious Congenital Malformation among Inborn Babies at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. Nigerian Journal of Paediatics 32:47
Olusi, T., Gross, U., and Ajayi, J. (1996). High incidence of toxoplasmosis during
pregnancy in Nigeria. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases28(6): 645-646.
Onadeko, M.O., Joynson, D.H., Payne, R.A., Francis, J. (1996). The prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in pregnant Nigerian women and the occurrence of stillbirth and congenital malformation. Afr J Med Med Sci. 25(4), 331-334.
Opsteegh M, Swart A, Fonville M, Dekkers L, van der Giessen J (2011) Age-
Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies. PLoS ONE 6(1): 112-115
Stagni L, Romano MA, Romano A, Magli A, Briganti F, Del Pezzo MA, Buffolano W.
(2009). Prenatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in Campania: preliminary report on activities and results. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz..104(2):374-7.
Tenter, A.M., Heckeroth, A.R., and Weiss, L.M. (2000). Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. International Journal of Parasitology 30, 1217–1258
Vaz, R.S., Thomaz-Soccol, V., Sumikawa, E., Guimarães, A.T.B. (2010). Serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pregnant women from Southern Brazil,
Parasitology Research 106, 661–665.
Walker, M.E., Hjort, E.E., Smith, S.S., Tripathi, A., Hornick, J.E. and Hinchcliffe, E.H. (2008). Toxoplasma gondii actively remodels the microtubule network in host cells. Microbes Infection (210): 1440–1449
Wallen F., Kebede N, Tsegaye A, and Kassa T (2013).Seroprevalence and risk factors
for Toxoplasmosis in HIV infected and non-infected individuals in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Parasite and Vectors. 6: 15
Zhang Niang, Shuai Wang, Dong Wang, Chaoying Li, Zhenchao Zhang, Zhijun Yao, Tingting Li, Qing Xie,Shiguo Liu,and Haizhu Zhang (2013). Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and risk factors in domestic sheep in Henan Province, Central China. 23: 53
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.